Le Phénix

 

    

 

            L'origine du Phénix est ancestrale : Benu, Oiseau Sacré des Egyptiens est un héron cendré, incarnation du Dieu du Soleil, souvent représenté dans l'iconographie antique. C'est à Héliopolis ou Thébe ( ville du Soleil)  qu'on lui vouait un culte, car c'est là qu'il apparaissait tous les 500 ans, chargé d'herbes odorantes, cueillient aux quatres coins du monde, qu'il déposait sur l'Autel de la ville. Il mettait alors le feu à ce mélange de d'arômates, encens et myhrre nécessaires à son embaumement, avant de s'immoler dans les flammes, pour rennaître trois jours plus tard.



             Etant le seul représentant de sa race sur terre, ce n'est qu'en mourant ainsi pour renaitre de ses cendres qu'il parvient à se perpétuer, comme le soleil doit inevitablement disparaitre à l'horrizon pour rennaître de la nuit au petit matin. Certains observateurs racontent d'ailleurs, qu'une fois son nid construit, l'animal effectue une danse rituel en direction de l'Astre Céléste, jusqu'à ce que ce dernier mettent le feu à son nid. Une fois sa combustion achevée, on peut voir apparaitre un oeuf, au coeur des cendres, qui éclore trois jours aprés. 

 


             Ainsi de nombreuses cultures reprennent ce symbole : l'Empire Romain y voit la puissance de sa force vitale toujours renouvelée, c'esrt pourquoi ont le retrouve sur des pièces de monnaies  et des mosaïques, les Chrétiens y voit le symbole de l'immortalité et de la résurection du Christ.

 

 

            Ormis son plumage rougeoyant, ce qui le caractérise particulièrement est le fait qu'il posséde une aigrette, des houppes de plumes sur la gorge brillantes comme de l'or fin, deux excroissances sous la mâchoire, et une queue rose et azurée. Il se nourrrit d'ammonium, de cannelle et d'encens, et parfois de soleil, de manne et de rosée.


             Même si au cours des siècles son lieu de vie varie ( de la Grèce a l'Inde en passant par l'Arabie), les peuples s'accordent sur le fait que sa longevité se situe entre 500 et 540 ans et qu'il rennaît innévitablement. Cette étrange caractéristique passionne et inspire nombre de légendes à travers le monde. Par exemple, pour les Juifs, il est "Milcham"( le phénix) qui devient immortel parce qu'Eve, aprés avoir goûté le fruit défendu tenta les autres animaux ; étant le seul à ne pas y cédé, Dieu ordonna donc à l'Ange de la Mort de ne jamais lui faire connaitre cette expérience. Ainsi ils ne parlent même pas de combustion de l'animal, mais d'un rajeunissement jusqu'au stade de poussin, où il renouvel alors son plumage pour grandir à nouveau.

 

 

             Appelé aussi "oiseau de cinabre", en relation avec le Sud, l'été et le feu, il symbolise pour les taoïstes le principe d'immortalité, mais dans la Chine traditionnelle il est le Feng-Huang, comme la licorne, il réunit le yin et le yang, formant un tout malgrés la dualité, il est donc souvent représenté pour illustrer la communauté conjugale.

 

             Pour l'anecdote l'opéra de la " Fénice " à Venise, a flambé deux fois, en 1773 et 1996, il fut reconstruit chaque fois, c'est pourquoi il porte le nom de cet animal fabuleux.


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